Gujjar history by Ali Hassan Chauhan Gurjar
Category :- History

As said by many historinans (alomost 90%), It is claimed that Gurjars originated in Central Asia, came into India via Afghanistan and established a kingdom in Rajasthan until defeated by the Muhammadans.

They then settled in Gujarat, and this provides one explanation of the name, but this is contested.

They are first referred to in the 7th century as warriors, who later migrated to the mountains for pasture for the animals. Their language is called Gujari, close to Pahari and Urdu. The census of India 1941 sates: "Historians seem to be satisfied that the tribes called "Gurjaras" were established in the area near Mount Abu in Rajasthan, around 6th century A.D. onwards. It is believed that these and other sections of the tribe were the ancestors of those now known as Gujars in this state. The “Gurjaras" were Hindus at the time they are first noticed in India. They had established a Kingdom of their own at the time of Harsha* of Thaneswar (606-647) about 640 A.D. It seems that the Gujars successfully resisted the Arab invasion from the north early in the eighth century A.D. It is alleged that about 750 A.D. the Chapa dynasty of the Gurjaras which had been in power for about 200 years, was displaced by the Pratiharas who seem to have carried on till about 1000 A.D., when their power was broken by the coming of Mahmud of Ghazni.

Nothing much appears to be known of the Gurjaras in the Punjab until 980 A.D. When Raja Shankervarman of Kashmir is said to have invaded Gujarat, the Gurjara Kingdom was ruled over by one Lakhandev. A region known as Takka, situated in the area now known as the Punjab was ceded by Shankervarman. It is reasonable to presume that Gurjara tribes had extended to the Punjab and it is probable that such places as Gujarat, Gujrat, Gujranwala and Gujar Khan and Gurdaspur, where Gujar families are still found derived their names from this fact. The Gurjara Kingdom ceased to exist by the time of Akbar when their country was annexed. By this time a number of Gujars, had embraced Muhammadism and from now onwards the connection of the northern sections with their Hindu ancestors becomes less and less. The migration of a part of the tribe to the territories now known as Jammu and Kashmir is attributed to the outbreak of a serious famine in the region inhabited by the tribe, now known as Rajputana, Gujarat and Kathiawar. The exact period has not been fixed but it is known as the Satahsiya famine. It is stated that some part of the migrating tribes moved to the Punjab whilst others moved further north to the areas now known as Kaghan, Swat, Hazara, Kashmir and Gilgit.

* The Views are obviously not mine

Gujjar history by Rana Ali Hassan Chauhan (from Tareikh e Gurjar)

By Ali Husan Chauhan
Author of Tareikh-e-Gurjar (Urdu in 5 volumes)

Undated traditions serve immense sources of information to history, observes F.G. Pargitar in his History of Ancient India.

In the vast country of sub-continental dimension, which had been familiar as Aryavarat, regional provincial and religious fervour influence variously to shape customs, manners, behaviour and political ideologies. Genesis of ubiquitous in saying testify observation of F.G. Pargitar. According to the saying a bride married to family living at distant places as far as 50 miles, while taking leave of her parents address plaintively with tears rolling down from their eyes to asks her father why she has been given in marriage to a family at a far off place, and how she could be able to maintain and uphold common traditions of the same stock, spread from Hindukush to Arakan. It is, however, remarkably striking to note that the Gujjars all over the sub-continent claim to be natives of the land since time immemorial. Learned among them also claim with confidence that they are Kshtriyas by origin, without having any traces of tradition of so called foreign origin.

In districts Jhalwan and Lasbela of Baluchistan, I met the Gujjars. The Jhalwan Gujars speak both Baluchi and Sindhi languages and claim to be natives of these areas without having origin of any foreign element in so far as their ethnic traditions are concerned. This was revealed to me by elderly Gujjars at Hab of District Lasbela. In the area the Zamindars (landlords) are called Baluch so we too are by the same name although they belong to Gujjar tribe. The other Pakistani Blauch and adjoining Irani Bluches are of one stock but against this we hail from separate Gujjar community. According to one tradition we have come from Delhi to this region and speak Sindhi language. In Markan, near border of Iran, the Gujjars are Ziki by faith and claim to have come from Mewar during the time of Akbar, the elderly Gujjars added. In the North-Western Frontier Province, the Gujjars are no less in number than the Pathans. Every Gujjar remembers his gotra (family name or sub-caste). Gujjars of almost all gotras are found here. Their pronunciation is quite the same as in other parts of the sub-Continent. The language, they speak among themselves, is Hindi according to Sir Alexender Grierson and Moulvi Abu Barkat Abdul Malik Chohan (Shahan-e-Gujar page 494 ). In Peshawar proper, this language is called Hindky. It is spoken side by side with Pashto. In Kashmir the Gujjars speak the same language. Here it is called Gurjari having the difference that Gojari in Hindi spoken in the tone of Mewari or Brij Bhasha in which oftenly “a” is changed into “o” and Hindky is Hindi inter-loaded with Punjabi words.

In Hazara district of the Frontier Province, it is noticeable that Jats and Ahirs are included among the Gujjars. They marry together, speak the same language and claim their ancestory from the common Indian stock, the Kashatriyas. The most remarkable tradition of all those I have noted in my life is of that Khatana Gujjar family. In 1938, Bashir Ahmed Khatana, a big landlord of Dam Jhera village, district Saharanpur and a license holder of a double barrel gun, in reply to my question disclosed the Khatanas do not kill peathingy nor eat its meat, according to prevailing gotra tradition. He however could not elucidate the reason and said simply “ I do not know “. He also said “ Our ancestor was Jaipal, as we know it generation by generation “. On the occasion of Victory Prade of World War II, in 1945 I came across a Khatana Gujar of Jalon, namely Bishamber Singh. He narrated to me a traditional story implying they were More (Peathingy) Khatana. He could not however explain convincingly why More (Peathingy) was annexed to Khatana. He said kingdom of our ancestor Jaipal was conquered by Mahmud, so our family crossed the river Satluj and settled in Marwar. After some generations our forefathers migrated and occupied a territory East of Ganges and we built a fort at Puwayan. In Shahjahan’s time the Moghul forces after a fierce fight demolished the Fort and on its ruins found Shahjahanpur. From there our family migrated to Chambal valley and found the present Samthar State with its capital Shamsher Garh, he also stated.

In district Gujrat (West Punjab), there are forty villages of Khatana Gujars whose Headman informed me in 1951 that by tradition they being More Khatana, are heirs of Jaipal who fought against Mahmud of Ghazni, but the peathingy theory could not be solved by them.

In 1968, I was transferred to Peshawar where I had a meeting with the Gujars of district Mardan under the headmanship of Mr. Bostan Khan, More Khatana, the then Assistant Inspector General of Police, Frontier Province, During conversation, they firmly claimed that they were descendants of Jaipal’s family and revealed that More (Peathingy) was their royal insignia. I was fully convinced by their arguments because I know that different families of the royal Gujars had different insignia. To the people of mountainous region from Kashmir to Afghanistan, peathingy was loveable bird. Shah Mir who claimed his descendancy from Pandu, in Mahabharat family, was the first local Muslim ruler. By and by, the Muslims from aboard poured in Kashmir and began hunt of the peathingys. Shah Zain-ul-Abdin, the grandson of Shah Mir put a ban on the killing of the peathingys. Severe punishment was imposed on the defaulters (see Tarikhi-i-Farishta.) Except at Zoo, the peathingy is now extinct in Pakistan but at Katas in district Jhelum, there is a Hindu temple around which there are peathingys since long. On request of the Hindu custodians of the temple, the Government of Pakistan has prohibited the killing of the bird in the area around the temple.

On 23rd March, 1969 Saturday it was holiday being Pakistan’s Resolution Day. Thus Mr. Bostan Khan and myself had two holidays (Saturday and Sunday) at our disposal. In a jeep we started on Friday the March 22nd in the afternoon from Peshawar for Dir which penetrates into Afghanistan and from there for Chitral whose borders are 10 to 12 miles distant from Central Asia in the North. In the cities, towns and villages where we halted for rest, we had a talk with the local Gujars about their traditions. About the origin some of them said we are local people of these areas since the time immemorial and most of them told us that their forefathers came to those places from Punjab.

None of them lifted their finger towards the nearest territories of Central Asia as being their original homeland.

On way back from Chitral, we came across a nomadic Gujar family in 2 tents near Mangora town in Swat valley where there are two foot prints of Shri Ram Chandra Ji on a horizontal rock. We went into the Men’s tent and talked with their headman Mr. Noor, when the old man knew about us he grasped us both in his arms with tears of joy in his eyes. During the talk, he stated that his gotra was Yadu and that some Gujar families from Kashmir wandering towards North acrossed the Pamir some generations ago.

The Central Asian people call us Hindus (natives of Hind) who live in the South of Hindu Kush and the river Oxus. The body structure and facial features of Central Asian reflect Chinese or Mongolian glimpse. We are distinguished by them from afar.

The foreign origin theory

In Central Asia there are many communities such as Tajik, Uzbeck, Kirgis, Khazer etc etc, each having their sub-castes or tribes. Their tribal names do not even resemble with any subcaste of the Gujars, Pathans, Shina and Dard etc. the people on Southern side of the northen Mountains. I was surprised to note that Noor and Bostan Khan during talks called the whole population of Central Asia as Uzbeck meaning thereby uncivilised people. The word Uzbeck is used in the same sense in large areas around Delhi. I have travelled in the whole Western part of the Sub-Continent, Gorakhpur to Chitral and Banaras to Zehidan and found that the Gujar have no tradition of their being originally foreigners. Morever, the Arabs and the Chinese travellers and their adversaries of the past and the Muslim historians in India during their centruries long rule had mentioned the Gujars to be the Indian people by origin. Now, the question arises why and how the theory of foreign origin of the Gurjars was profounded during British rule in India.

Abu Rehen Muhammad ibne Ahmad Aiberuni a native of Khiwa was born in 937 A.D. He is popularly known as Alberuni. He was eager to learn philosophy, astronomy and Sanskrit lliterature, so he came to India in life time of Mahmud of Ghazna. Going back, he wrote a book Kitab-ul-Hind in Arabic. The book was translated into German and English by a German namely Dr. Edward. C.Sachau in two Volumes in 19th Century A.D. The books entitled Alberuni’s India in English have been reproduced by Sheikh Barkat Ali at Lahore in 1962.

Alberuno writes: Ghazna was seized.... Supreme power fell to the lot of Nasir-Addaula Sabuktagin. This prince chose the holy war as his calling and therfore called himself Al-Ghazi (warring on the road of Allah.) In the interest of his successor he constructred, in order to weaken the Indian frontier, those roads on which afterwards his son Yami Addaula Mahmud marched into India during a period of 30 years and more. God the merciful to both father and son, Mahmud utterly ruined the prosperity of the country and performed their wonderful exploits, by which the Hindus become like atoms of dust scattered in all direcrions. There scattered remains cherish, of course, the most inveterate aversion towards Muslim. This is the reason, too, why Hindu sciences have retired far away from those parts of the country conquered, and have fled to Kashmir, Benaras and other places.

I do not wish to mention the brutality and tyrany of the invaders but I want to explain that all the books and records, (official and individual) were burnt to ashes.

Ghazna, Kabul, Pwshawar, Taxila, Beera, Mulsthan, Shakambhari, Bhinmal, Naran, Somnath, Kanauj, Ujjain and Kurukshetra etc, were not only worshipping places but were also centres of learning there were schools and colleges of all secieces which were levelled to the ground. Mahmud extended his domination upto Lahore. His ground Mahmud extended his domination upto Lahore. His successors, too, adopted the same policy of destruction Time to time, they crossed the River Satulaj and raided up to Hansi, Hisar and Vawera (modern Ajmer area) in 1192A.D. Mohammad Ghori won the battle of Taraori in district Karnal. As soon as the news spread, the whole population from Karnal to Agra fled to all sides. Delhi become the pemanent seat of invaders. The whole Sub-Continent was under their direct control except Gurjar Desh.

In cities and towns the families of the foreigners settled holding all the lands around them. None of the natives had proprietory rights of land, they were only tenants, slave cultivators who were given a scanty quantity of grains of the lowest kind, such as millet, jawar and barley. Moreover, it also depended on the willingness of the masters to give or not to give at all. K.M. Munshi in his book Glory That Was Gurjar Desa has rightly stated that many local famillies of high rank became out-law in the forests. Conversion to Islam did not help the people, the Shudas remain shadras. Kashatriya people became graziers and shepherds, anyone can see even today the Muslim Gurjars with their buffalos, cows, sheep and goats wandering from Dehra Doon to Swat. A mosque may be built jointly by the inhabitants of the whole village but the local.

Muslims were so poor that not a single mosque was built of burnt bricks. It is to be seen during to the period of foreing Muslim Rule.

Direct control was difficult over Gurjar Desa being a vast desert. So to suppress Kshatriyas it was handed over (in the early years of the Fouteenth Century A.D.) to those natives who cooperated with the foreigners. These native Jagiradars called Rajput found the new cities, Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Kota, Bundi etc during Musilim Rule in India. The forign Muslims wrote histry books using the word Rajput for the ancient Rulers of India, surely to degrade the Kshatriyas, elevated to high position, during Moghal period in the Seventreenth and Enghteenth Century A.D. the Rajputs got prepared their pedegree trees connecting them with ancient royal houses of Sialkot, Ajmer, Bhatinda, Delhi, Multan, Kannauj, Khera, Ujjain, Bhilmal, Baroach and Anahilwara. The Gurjars had gone into obscurity.

The Foreign Origin Theory: Such was the state of affairs in the country when the Britishers (East India Company) established an empire by fighting, negotiations or conspiracies. They never declared holy war. Genghiz Khan can repent and can have pity on the defeated, but a holy warrior cannot do, because he is blessed more and more by God on his most brutal and heinous exploits, infllicted on the defeated.

As such the Britishers did not dismantle the worship places of any relilgion, men were not made slaves and the women were respected. The local old books were searched out and were translated into English. The Britishers were men of larning and loved the learned.

In 1805 A.D. Colonel James Todd was appointed as Surveyor General in Gurjar Desa (present Rajasthan). There he took great interest in Archaeology. The Sanskrit inscriptions since sixth Century A.D. on ancient palaces, forts. Temple and baolies revealed that those buildings had been built by the Gurjars and not by the Rajputs as had been propagated by the foreign Muslims in India and the Rajputs as well, to such an extent that every Indian Ruler of the past and the present was being called Rajput throughout the Sub Continent, it puzzled Colonel Todd. As mentioned above, the poverty and illiteracy prevailed in the Indian Society so there were no local History book. Some famillies of the ancient past are common among the Gujars, Jats, Ahirs and the Rajputs. How to adjust in history the Rajputs, who then held the highest position in political fields among the Hindus? Perchance he got a book Prithvi Raj Raso written by a Bard Chand Bardai in 15th or 16th Century A.D having a story stating that the Parmar, Solanki, Pratihar and Chohan were born of a fire pit at Mount Abu. Haphazardly, it was supposed. There is no mention of Gurjars before sixth century in therefore, the Gurjars came with the Hunas, Scythians and Epithalites etc. Who in Sixth Century A.D. invaded. They were converted to Hindusim at Mount Abu. The higher ones were made Rajput and rank and file remained Gurjar and Ahirs.

This supposition or thought of Colonel James Todd in the book Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan was readily accepted by the historians Europeans and Indians with further remarks. Some said they came from Gurjistan and others took them to be Khazers of Central Asia. General Cunningham stopped further and said.

There is Kushan family among the Gujars, so he fixed their arrival into India with Kushan, Yu-Chi and Tatars in the Ist Century A.D. when the Kushans emerged into history.Mr. C.V. Vaidaya was the first scholar who challenged this so called theory.

Honourble K.M. Munshi in 1944, first of all, called all the rulers of Gurjar Desa from 6th Century A.D. to 1300 A.D., by the Gurjar name. But he put forward a new theory, Gurjar primarily was the namae of a territory whose inhabitants were divided into four castes, Gurjar Brahman, Gurjar Kshatriya, Gurjar Vaishya and Gurjar Sudras (see Glory That was Gurjar Desa).

Sri Yatindra Kumar Verma challenged this theory in his Gurjar Itihas and proved that Gurjar was name of a Kshtriyan tribe. After him Dr Baij Nath Puri in his thesis- “The Gurjar Pratiharas stated Gurjar was the name of a tribe and Gurjar Pratihars were Kshatriyas of Raghu family.

Same theory continued

The theory of the foreign origin of Gurjaras requires further scrutiny: -

I. It has been said that Rajputs were born on Mount Abu in the begining of 6th Century A.D. but from 500 A.D. to 1300 A.D. there was no community by the name of Rajputra or Rajput in India whereas Gurjar and Ahirs are mentioned even before Christ.

II. A Jat-Asur is mentioned in the book Mahabharat 3101 B.C. If a Kshatriya becomes Jat (illiterate) or Asur (non-believer) or thief (as per Chachnama) his origin will remain the same. However, we find a Jat king ruling at Takatpur in about 975 A.D. in Northren Sind.

III. Abhirs or Ahirs are well known to history. It is universally known that Sri Krishna was brought up by Baba Namd Ahir and his wife Yeshoda (3100B.C.). However, we find Ahir kings ruiling in Saurashtra side by side with the Gurjars.

IV. The Agni Kul (fire born) ruling families were Gurjars as per epigraphic and Antiquary records from 500 A.D. to 1300 A.D. During this whole period, they never called themselves fire-born. They always called themselves Brahm Kashtra. Raghava (Raghu) and Surya Vansh.

The groups of people are formed of old races with new names under different circumstances. Here I mean to say, the groups of ancient Kshtriyas, the Gurjars and Ahirs are older than the present groups of the Rajputs. Therefore, the Rajputs have no concern with Agni Kul legend. It is noteworthy that there is not at all the word Rajput found anywhere in the book Prithvi Raj Raso in which the legend is recorded.

V. Suppose, Gurjars were foreigners, After socalled conversion to Hinduism they are called Gurjar or Gujar till today, Suppose, their leaders were named Rajputs. Then how a Rajput can be superior to a Gurjar by origin when the forefather of the Rajput was a Gurjar before conversion.

VI. Hun is no doubt as sub-caste (tribe) of the Gurjar caste or race. The Gurjar race or caste consists of hundreds of gotras (sub-caste). Hun no doubt ruled some small principalities whereas the Gurjars established empires, of them four are famous to history and the Huns were their subordinate rulers, then how the Hun can be called the master of the Gurjars and Ahirs. Hun is a Sanskrit word denoting a person who does not listen to the opinion or advice of the others but acts upon his own wishes. Hun Mat a proverb is still in use meaning thereby the wisdom of an unruly. Hun tribe is mentioned in the Mahabharat, Puranas, in history of Guptas of Patna, and Palas of Bengal.

In the time of Gurjar Mihir Bhoj, Hun’s principality was that now called Mianwall district on the eastern bank of River Indus. In the book Mahabharats about 200 Kshatriyan tribes are mentioned in the Sub-Continent, of whom Chib, Hun, Dard, Shina (China or Channa) Dakh, Pakhtu and Kombed are described in the areas, south of Palmir and Oxus River. Kombel were in the West near the border of Iran who migrated inside the country in 10th century A.D., but all the other tribes under same name are living in those areas till today. The Huns in Hunza have lost their identity and are called Ismailies or Aghan Khani a sect of Shia Muslims. The Husns in other parts are a part and parcel of Indian society from ancient time to this day. Once one educated Nawarai Hun (in Gujrat Kathiawar) went to the house of Muslim saint namely Jahanyan Jahan Gashat on his illness for consolation. In presence of many others. Nawarai Hun said as Hazrat Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) was the last prophet, so the Saint is last Saint. Thus Nawarai Hun praised the sant, meaning thereby that such a dignitied Saint would not be born in future. But one Syed Rajput Qatal at once issued fatwa. As you have accepted Hazrat Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) the last prophet, so you have become a Muslim. If now you live as a Hindu, you are Murded-deserter of Islam whose punishment is death. To save his life Nawarai Hun fled to Feroze Tughlaq the king of Delhi. The Syed chased him. As soon as Nawarai Hun entered the Darbar (King’s Court) the Syed from behind struck him with sword and kiled him (Siyar-ul-Arifeen page159-160). The Son of Nawa Rai Hun founded a village Nawal after the name of his father. The village Nawal exists today near Meerut city, where the descendants of Nawa Rai Hun live as a part (sub-caste) of the Gurjars. The family is famous for their high position, prestige and dignity.

VII. Georgia was called Gurjistan by the Persians. It is merely a coincidence with the word Gurjar so is Khazer with Gujar. The words Gurjar and Gujar are the same.

Gujar is Prakrit form of the Sanskrit word Gurjar. Such as Brahman =, Bahman, Krishan = Kishan, Rajputra = Rajput etc., but Gurjistan and Khazer are two separate words, it is merely a tampering to connect these words with Gurjar of Gujjar. If such a philology is allowed in History then we can say England was the land of Ang, Saxsons of Britain were Sakesena of Bengal, Jut-land was so name by our jats and Argentina was discovered by Arjun, of Mahabhrats here.

An Arab historian ibn Khardadbah in his history book AI-Masalik-w-Al-Mamalik states: The tititle of the kings of Turkj, Tibet and Khazer is Khaqan. They are all the descendants of Faridum. He further states in Hind, Balhara is the greatest of all kings, there are also, other kings such as, Chap, Tank, Juzae, Jaba, Brahma, Kamrup. He again writes Draham (coin) of Malikul- Juzer is Tatri.

Balhabra is Valbhi Eai, Juzar is Gurjar (In Arabic there is no G and P) Jaba is Chap, Kamrup is modern Assam. If read thoroughly the above statement pertains to seventh Century A.D. It is clear that Khazer and Gujar were quite different races.

Origin of name Gurjar

VIII. In Bible ( Old Testament) the country, adjacent to Iran in the east, is Kush. It shows that modern Afghanistan was called Kush in the time of Bible. Afterwords, the whole valley of Sindh was called Hind by Persians. Persian language is Prakrit or a branch of Sanskrit. Alphabet’s is changed into in Persian such as Sapt = Haft (seven), Saptah = Hafth (week) Sahsar =Hazar (thousand), Sind = Hind, Dash =Dah Ten. Sam Karya =Hamkar (man of the same profession).

The name Hind was applied to the whole land to the east of Sind Valley. The Arabs called the people of Hind, Ahl-ul-Hindu but the Persians particularly Central Asians called its inhabitants Hindu. So they called Kush by the name of Hindu Kush. Hindu Kush is called by the same name till today. The Kushan were Hindu who reached Patliputra under their leader Kanishk. It is strange in history when a Hindu of Peshawar which is inside Aryavarta conquers Patna he is supposed to be foreigner but when Chandra Gupta a Hindu of Patna conquers Peshawar, he is not foreigner. It must take into view that Peshawar was as inside Aryavarta in the West as Patna was inside Aryavarta in the East. Kanishk is a Hindu name. His father was Vijhisk. Their ancestor Kidphysis is a wrong imagination of the Europeans. It is also said that Kaniskh wore heavy cloth and boots. Yes, in snowy valleys of Kailash and Hindu Kush, a Patna Dhoti (loin) cannot be worn The Kushan, sub-caste of the Gujars, was a native family at Peshawar, that is why Kanishk spared Subahu Nagar, the Ruler of Patna. The family was called Devaputra, the Aryan.

IX. Once in 1970 A.D. When I was sitting in Peshawar Library some Pathan Scholars claimed that Jaipal was a Pathan and his capital Lahore was in District Mardan which exists to this day. When Jaipal was defeated continuously at Ghazna, Kabul and Peshawar, he did not go to Lahore or Ravi but burnt himself at the bank of the River Jhelum in despair and shame. The reply that there is still a tract of land namely Gujrat, where Lahore is situated in district Mardan. It is another proof that Jaipal was a Gurjar.

X. Gujranwala was a new settlement coming into existence in the 18th Century A.D. but Gujrat Mardan and Gujrat Chenab are ancient names of the territory. The Gurjar (Gujjar) and Gurjjaratra (Gujrat) are pure Sanskrit names. If the Gurjars coming from the foreign lands founded these cities with Sanskrit names, where had they been taught Sanskrit language.

The scholars, sitting at Lahore, Karachi, Bombay, Calcutta and Delhi look at Gujranwala and Gujrat in the West Punjab on the map and issuing Fatwa that the Gurjars came from foreign land through Afghanistan, undergo a faulty outlook of the history. By sitting at Peshawar and Kabul and looking at Pathankot and Pathan Pura in the Panjab, can we say that the Pathans came to Frontier Province from China through Tribet. On the whole, the theory of foreign origin of the Gurjars is not only wrong but also absurd and the legend of fire birth is totally a falsehood as no man can be born of fire. But there is another aspact of the legend.

It is believed that Adam whose idol was made of clay by angles came from Heaven on Earth. Even his wife also came from Heaven on Earth; Hazrat Ibrahim’s ancestor of Semitic race was thrown into fire but he came out of the fire, after staying there, without any injury or harm. The Muslim Emperors of foreign creed in India were called Zille Subhani i.e.Shadow of God. Similarly, four men namely, Parmar, Solanki, Pratihar and Chauhan were born of fire-pit by Brahma (the Creater). The Story of Agnikul was written in the 15th Century A.D. Abdul Fazal recorded a different story, according to which Parmar was born of fire pit in 500 B.C. The sun has been creating his sons to be emperors of Japan till today.

On these lines, the fire born theory of Parmar, Solanki, Pratihar and Chauhan may be accepted.

XI. The meaning of Gurjar and Gurjjaratra. In Urdu, Hindi and English the word Gurjar or Gujar is in use but in all the ancient records upto 1300 A.D. It is Gurjar, its Prakrit is Gujjar which is generally spoken by the people. Sanskrit Dictionary compiled by Pandit Radha Kant (Shakabada1181) explains: -

Gurjar = Gur (enemy) + Ujar (destroyer).
Gurjar means Destroyer of the enemy.

It is masculinegender. I say that its feminine gender is Gurjarani (Gujarani). The Gurjari is an adjective, though in common use in Hindi Gurjari (Gujjri) word is used both, feminine gender and as an adjective.

An ornament of the wrist is called Gujjaari and a place is called Gujjari Mahal by the word as an adjective. It is evident that Gurjar denotes a human being and not a country. Again, look into the meaning of Gurjaratra. In Sanskrit “tram” mean protected by, tra is abbreviation. Therefore, Gurjaratra (Gurjrat) means a country protected by the Gurjars or a country or territory under ptotection of the Gurjars.

In history by these two names Gurjar and Gurjaratra everything is clear A group of Kshatriyas in ancient times destroyed the enemies of the country, the invaders on the western border, so the people entitled them as Gurjars. There are examples in history, when a Kshatriya of that Region rose to highest power and adopted the title Gurjar, Gurjarasver, Gurjar Nath, Gurjar Senani, Gurjarendra and Gurjar Path. The Gurjars were not only the conquerers, victorious and rulers but were the best administrators and lovers of sciences in the whole world at that time. The Arabs, their enemies, praised them thus;

In Hind there is a Malik (king) who is called Al-juzar (Gujar). Such is awdl (justice) in his kingdom, if the gold is dropped in the way, there is no danger of its being picked up and stolen away by any body. His kingdom is very vast. Arab traders go to him, he makes ahsan (favour) to them, purchases merchandise from them; the purchase and sale are carried in gold coin called tatri, When the Arabs request him to provide a body guard, he says, there is no thief in my kingdom. If there is any incident or loss to your goods, merchandise and money I stand surety. Come to me, I will pay the compensation.

(Kitsbul Alaq Al-Nafisa Part 4 pages 134 by Ibne Rustah).

Such as the examplary peace and justice in Gujar kingdom that is why their kingdom was called Gurjaratra (protected area) tra affix is not found used to any other kingdom in India. Please excuse me and let me say that the rule of Sri Ram Chandra ji was not even called Ramatra.

XII. The Rashtra Kuts of Deccan were the adversaries of the Gujjars. In an inscription Govind III the Rashtra Kut states my grand father defeated the Gurjars who were the highest ranking among the Kshatriyas.

There is ample contemporary evidences to show that the people had the knowledge about the Gurjars being Kshatriyas of the ancient highly reputed families ie Yadu, Raghu, Iksvaku, Paru etc, Hieun Sang the Chinese traveller is considered an honest writer. He himself was a Buddhist and king of Sind at that time was a Buddhist but Hieun Tsang honestly wrote him a Sudra by origin. He states, the Gurjar rulers of Bhinmal, Valbhipur, Baroach, and Vatapi were Kshatriyas by origin.

It is also wrong to say that the Gurjars were against Buddhist History scholars. In 7th Century A.D., the Gurjar kingdom of Bhinmal was the second biggest empire in the Sub-Continent. Its Ruler was Buddhist. The ruler of Valbhipur was also Buddhist as per statement of the Chinese traveller. Moreover, in the middle of 12th Century A.D. the Chaun of Naddul had adopted Jainism.

SOME PROMINANT GURJAR TRIBES:

Awan:
In West Punjab most of the Awans claim to be syeds (Alvi). They say that Qutab Shah their ancestor came from Arabis, so they call themselves Qutab Shahi Awan. But the syeds or Alvi do not marry with them. I had a hot discussion with their educated persons because in the book Shahan-i-Gujar page 129 and 137 Awan tribe is mentioned as a sub-caste of the Gujars. To find the origin of the Muslims in the Sub-Continent two points are sufficient to be taken into consideration.

(a) Names of men and women in the past:
All the foreign Muslims had their names in Arabic, Persian or Turkish languages whereas the names of the converted Muslims remained the same in Punjabi or Hindi for generations. Names of ancestors of the Awans were in Punjabi or Hindi. It is a modern practice that when non-Muslim embraces Islam, he is allotted an Arabic name.

(b) Status:
All the foreign Muslims in the Sub-Continent became Mansabdar, officers and jagirdars or big landlords. Most suitable example is that of Ghyas Irani. The foreign Muslims did not plough the fields, did not dig the drains and did not live in villages in huts, they were not cattle lifters as Awans have been doing since centuries in the north-western districts of the Punjab.

As a matter of fact, Qutab Shah was a Maulvi of their ancestors. Similar practice has started among the Gujars. Gujar Maulvis in Bharat have added the word Qasimi in their names. Maulvi Qasim was the founder of Devband Maktab, But in Pakistan Maulana Abdul Hakim Bagri and Maulana Muhammad Ishaque Khatana have added the name of the sub-caste in their names.

There is a village Fatepur in district Gujrat which is wholly owned by Awan Gujars. In Nawan Shahr, Tehsil Abbotabad, district Hazara, there are Awan Gujars among them Maulana Mehruddin Qamar Awan is a prominent figure. There is also a Hindu Awan family of Gujars in Alwar where they have a big shop of Electronics. Once the headman whose name is forgotten, wrote me a letter. I was surprised to see that in Urdu, he wrote the word Awan in Arabic form, Surely, Awan is a Sanskrit word. By giving it an Arabic form the family cannot be considered foreigner. Sri Yatindra Kumar Verma says that before Christian Era Malva was named Awanti after the name of this Gujar Gotra.

Batar:
The sub-caste holds 52 villages with their head-quarters at Gangoh in district Saharanpur (UP) India. They rightly claim that their ancestors came from Multan. Sir Denzil Ibbetson in his Tribes and Castes of the Punjab has stated that there are Butar people in a great number in Multan Division (Pakistan). In UP (India) the word is Batar, some call it Butar, but in Punjab the sub-caste is called Buttar. In West Punjab (Pak) it has been a tradition that any villager who holds some land is called Jat. I am sure Batar and Buttar have the same meaning.

Bhati:
The ancestor of this gorta was Bhati Rao Yadava, the Ruler of Sialkot in the Ist Century A.D. In 2nd Century A.D. the Bhatis are found quarreling with Johiyas (Yaudheyas) and Lingah (Lahing) in Lower Sutlej Valley. There they founded three cities. Bhati (as written by Alberuni) or Bhatiya (as written by Farishta). (2) Bhatner and (3) Bhatinda. There is a Bhati Gate in Lahore. Bhati city was 15 Darsakh from Multan to the west and was destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazna in 1026 (Farishta). Bhatner was levelled to the ground by Tamer Lang in 1398. Only Bhatinda exists today. There is a 600 years old village Bhatti Gujran in district Jhelum. Bhatti Gurjars live in 360 villages in Bulandshahr and Meerut districts, where their title of Honour had always been Rao upto 1857.

Johiya:
The ancient Yaudheyas are now called Johiya in the village. But the educated persons have their separate entity and they are not called either Gujar or Jat or Rajput. Before the arrival of the Britishers, the family was known as Gujar but when the Gujar tribe was not taken into government services, due to their participation in 1857 struggle against the Britishes, the Johiyas ceased to be called Gujars. In the time of Farrukh Siyar, the King of Delhi 1713 and 1719 Shah Afrin (Poetic name) was a famous poet in Persian language at Lahore. Allama Ghulam Ali Azad who had met him, wrote in his book “Khazan-i-Amrah”: Shah Afrin. Naam-i-o-Faqirullah Asst. Molid-w-Mansha Mansha-i-o Lahore. Asilshaz Qabilah-i-Joyah Keh Shobha Ast az qaume-Gujar. (Translation: Shah Afrin’s name is Faquirllah. The place of his birth and education is Lahore. His ethnic is Johiya which is a branch of Gujar race).There is a village namely Tirth Taki in district Dadu in Sindh where all Johiyas call themselves Gujar, Mr. Muhammad Ibrahim Joyah who has been Secretary, Board of Sindhi Culture Sindhi Adabi Board belongs to this village. He is prominent figure in Sindhi literacy circle.

Chouhan:
The Royal Chauhans called themselves Surya Vans Kshatriyas (Prithvi Raj Vijai 2-7, Hamir Maha Kavya Sarg1). The Gujar Empire marched towards its fall, its suzerains, the Chauhans, Paramars and Solankis began fighting for supremacy. First of all, the Chauhans entitled themselves Gujaresvar and attacked Bhadanas of Bayana and Tomars of Delhi, then the common lord the Raghu Kulin came in and settled the matter. The Parmar record of Bhoj states that the Parmar Raja defeated Chedi. Toggal, Bhim, Karnat, Gujar Rath and Turshken (E.I. Vol 1 page 235-236) clearly here Bhim Solanki is not Gurjar Rath, Gurjar Rath was adjacent to Turks on the river Sutlej. Dashrath Sharma in his book Chauhan Dynasty states that the Chauhans were subdued by the Parmars. It is, therefore, clear that the Gurjar Rath- Gujar king to Parmars in record was Chauhan whose capital was Naran.

There is a contemporry evidence of Al-Beruni who states: Marching from Kanauj towards the South West, you came to Asi, 18 Farsakh from Kanauj Sahaniya, 17 Farsakh, Jandra, 18 Farsakh, Rajauri, 15 Farsakh, Bazan, the capital of Gujarat, 20 Farsakh. This town is called Narayan by the people, After it had fallen into decay the inhabitants migrated to another place called Jandura. All the historians agree that this was Gujrat to Chauhans. There is still a village Narayan in the vicinity of Ajmer. Al-Beruni further states marching from Bazan, (Yarayan) southword, you come to Mewar, 25 Farsakh from Bazan, this is a kingdom, the capital of which is Jattaraur (Chittor), From this town to Malwa and its capital Dhar the distance is 20 Farshkh. The city of Ujjain lies 7 Farsakh to the east of Dar, Marching from Bazan towards the west, you come to Multan 50 Farsakh from Bazan, Bhati, 15 Farsakh.

Thus Narayan was a famous town, from where roads were going on all sides, It was destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazna. Afterwards, Ajmer was founded which was conquered by Muhammad Ghauri in 1192. Ranthambhore the last stronghold of Chauhan Gurjars fell into the hands of Alladdin Khilji in about 1300 A.D.

A group of Chauhans migrated to Multan but they were not allowed to settle there by the Muslim Governor of Multan. The party crossed the river Sutlej and marched towards the East along the Southern bank of the river. Near a rivulet Markand, they found Rajpura now a town in District Patiala. Two or three years later, Muslim Governor of Sirhind ousted them from Rajpura. The party marched further East. One family of theirs found a village Nav Rana on the western side of the river Jamna (Yamuna) now district Panipat (Haryana) India. They call themselves by the same old name Chhamn or Chauhan. Three brothers namely, Kalsha Raj, Deo Raj and Deep Raj Chauhan crossed the river Jamna.

In those days there were forests on both sides of the river which lasted to the beginning of the twentieth century. Kalsha Raj Chauhan, the eldest brother founded Kai-Rana and possessed an area of 83 villages called Chaurasi. The affix Kai means great. Kai Thal means great or vast campared to high land. The great Thal has a town by the same name Kai Thal (India). In Persian, which is a branch of Sanskrit, the affix Kai is used in the same sense. Khusro means small ruler (Rana) so Kai Khsurao is synonymous to Kai Rana. One of the sons of Kalsha Raj Chauhan namely Rao Kumbha found Khandraol (Khand-Rao-Ii ie Rao wali Khand or Rao’s share of land) on Sunday the 10th Sudi Phalgun 1421 V.E. corresponding to the last week of February. 1364 A.D. (probably 26.2.1364). In 15th Century A.D. conversion to Islam ensured. The eldest brother in every house embraced Islam, one Muslim Gujar of Mandawar found a village namely Rana Majra which is now on the western bank of river Jamna due to the diversion of the river.

The Khand of Rao Kumbha consisted of six big villages and four hamlets. After five generations two hamlets Brahm Khera and Malhipur were built side by side, there being only a lane between them, so it is considered a full village thus there became 7 villages which are called sat gaon. One of the grand sons of Rao Kumbha was Rana Vir Sal who embraced Islam. Vir Sal’s Grandson Malha Rao found Malhipur on the site of a ruined village Lahori Pur. Even today in Revenue record of Tehsil, its name is written Lahori Pur alias Malhipur.

In the descendancy line of Malha Rao there was Rana Nadir Ali, commonly known as Nyadra who was elected the Sardar of Chaurasi by the Panchayat (Council). Kabiz Singh of Khandrauli wrote in 1956 an article about him in monthy magazine Vir Gurjar published from Meerut (India).

Now a days all the descendants of Kalsha Raj Chauhan are called Kalshan. His younger brother was Dev Raj Chauhan who established Tuprana-Hutments of the Ranas which is now 10 kilometer distant North of Kairana. His sons found Jhinjhana, Bidoli and Lap Rana (Hamlet of Rana). In Akbar’s Time descndants of Deoraj were ousted from this area.

Tup Rana and Lup Rana were given to unruly Afghans to pacify them and other two towns were bestowed to Syeds. All Deoras scattered, now live in many villages at the foot of Shiwalik Hills. Only one village out of the old Tuprana exist by the name of Tuprana Gujtan where some families of Muslim Gujars are living.

The youngest brother Deep Raj Chauhan marched further east and in the khadar of the river Ganges found a town Mand Rana. The descendants of Deep Raj are called Deepa. These Deepa Chauhans are big landlords and are holding high position in every field of life. Deepas were called Rao and Ranas upto 1875. The ruler queen of Landhora (UP) India state, belonged to Mand Rana. The Deepas, Deoras and Kalshan belonging to same gotra, Chauhan, do not marry among themselves. Mand Rana is now being called Mandlana as changes into in Prakrit. In 1980 I was given a book in Urdu, with the father of Mr. Hukam Singh.which was lying useless. There is a mention of Landhora in the book. In this book, Mandrana is written clearly The title of honour of the Pamar Gurjars in District Saharanpur (India) is Raja. They claim their migration from Dhara.

The names of some towns and villages of the Chauhan Gurjars which they found in the 14th Century A.D. after migration from Ranthambhore to this place are as follews: Kandela, Panjeeth, Panjokhara, Gandraon, Khargaon. Balwah, Mandwar (Mandvyavar), Jhanjhana town (Jhunijhuno), Badoli a town, (Bardoli), Assar pur (Airpur) Paoti, Sanathi, Mand Rana (Mandu), Bhadar Staana (Satyana) etc.

The same names of the old towns and villages may be seen in the old Gurjar Desa (Present western Rajasthan). By the above description I means to say: As the existing Gujrat in Mardan, Gujrat on Chenab, Gujrat in Muzaffar Garh, Gujrat- Saharanpur (1857), Gujar Dhar in Gwalior and Gujrat Kathiawar show the expansion of Gujar kingdom. Similarly, the existing towns Navrana, Kai Rana, Khand Rao Wali, Rana Majra, Tup Rana and Mand Rana are the contemporary evidences of the past that Rana, Rao, Rawal and Rawar etc were the title of the Gujars only.

In Gwalior, the Gujars have always been called as Rana. In the 15th Century A.D. there was Bagh Rao a Gujar of Gothan village (Ojha page 190). In Ain-e-Akhbari a list of all Rajput leaders is given but not a single one has been described as Rana or Rao. Only Mann Singh is written as Raja Man Singh, but the tittle Raja was not limited to the Rajput only. Birbal Brahman has also been mentioned as Raja Birbal (Tarikh-e-Farishata written in the time of Jahangir). There is no mention of a Rajput with a title of Rana or Rao. Only Partap is written as Rana Partap, but Rana Partap was not a Rajputra, he was a pure Gurjar belonging to Guhilot family. Gohilots were of shoot of maitrikas. The Maimatrias and Gohilots were undoubtedly Gurjars. Historians know that after the desctruction of the Royal Gohilot family of Chittor in 1330 A.D., the Gohilots of Sisod emerged in History and Hamir by force took over Chittor back from its new officer-in-charge of the foreign Muslims.

Hamir’s line was afterwards called Sisodia because Hamir came from Sisod. In his line Rana Pratap who died in 1596 A.D. was the last Gurjar. After his death the family was linked in materimonial relations with the Rajputs and now the family is known as Rajput. But it is not strange. One Abdul Ghafoor Khatana, a Gujar, became the Ruler of Swat in 19th Centry A.D. His sons surrounded on all sides by the Pathan Rulers were married in Pathan families and now the family is called Pathan (see Shahan-e-Gujar and Report on Tribes of Dir, Swat and Chitral by Captain A.H. MacMohan page 24).

Secondly, by the above facts, I mean to explain when the Gurjars, migrated, Brahman, Vaish and Sudras accompanied their Yajmans, in words of Honourable K.M. Munshi they were Gurjar Kshatriyas, Gurjar Brahman. Gurjar Vaish and Gurjar Sudras ie natives of Gurjar (country). But the Brahman, Vaish and Sudra were called simply Brahman, Visha Sudra. Similar position exists today also. There is a reference that the ruler of Bengal defeated Dravid. Hun and Gurjar. Mr K.M.Munshi says Dravid and Hun are the names of tribes but Gurjar is the name of a country. Mr. Ojha proceeded a step further. Only one example is quoted here. In the old book Prithvi Raj Vijai, Sarg 5, verse 78 is given like this, Jigai Gurjar Karn tomashanv prapt Maalava.

N.B: The Book Tarikh-e-Landhora, in which there is mention of Mand Rana was written by Harnam Singh, Khatri of Landhora. He was married at Kai Rana. He was a Civil Engineer at Ajmer where the book was published in 1876 A.D.

In the old book Prithvi Raj Vijai, sarg 5 verse 78is given like this Jigai Gurjar Karn tomashanv Prapt Maalava.

Transilation word to word: Defeating Gurjar Karna victory obainted Maalava i.e. Malava obtained victory by defeating Gurjar Karn. But Mr. Ojha translateed the above verse in Hindi as Udayaditya ne Gujrat ke raja ko jita i.e. Udayaditya conquered Karn the King of Gujrat (see history of Rajputana in Hindi Page 215). Mr. Ojha is the historian of the Rajputs. In the very beginning of his book the first para starts: “There were no Rajputs before 1300 A.D. the word Rajputs came into use as a community in Moghal Period”. “Then how can he call the rulers, who ruled before 1300 A.D. by the name Rajput. Honourable K. M. Munshi has called the rulers by Gurjar name who ruled 500 A.D. 1300 A.D.

After migration in new settlement the Brahmans, Vaishas and Sudras were given plots of land to construct their houses. The Brahman, as preceptor, also were given some agriculture land which are called Dodli. In the above-mentioned settlement the Chaurasi a whole village named Airiti was also bestowed to the headman of the Brahmans. In 15th century A.D. conversion to Islam ensued, eldest brother in every house became Muslim. The Brahmans were divided. The Muslim Gurjars gave Bohli land to their Brahmans, even a whole village named Andi (Anandi) was bestowed to the headman of the Brahmans. Muslim Faqirs (Jogies) were also given some agriculture land called Milak. These Dohlis and Milaks stand as their property today. Though both the groups have been deserted during the early years of this century. In short these three classes never used the word Gurjar in their names, they were simply called and are still called Brahman, Vaish and Sudra. If any Brahman called himself Gurjar Brahaman, it only meant the preceptor of the Gurjars. The same position is in Rajasthan itself. Of this kind Gorkha, Maratha, Baluch and Pathan are living examples.

When foregin Muslims occupied the Sub-Continent, there was no seprate single Kshatriya class, it had already been spilt up into many communities such as Gurjar, Ahir, Dogar, Arora and Kambosh etc. So Rajput can claim to be Kshatriya only if he belongs to any one of these groups. Abul Fazal clearly says that there is no Khatri, but a tribe of this name has taken himself into other occupation. In Arabic script, the foreign Muslims always wrote the Kshtriya as Khatri and were misled.

The word Kshatriya is derived from Kshatan (In Persian Khushatn). Which means to beat (chhatna) the word Khatri is derived from Krishtan (In Persian Kishtan) which means to cultivate. Thus Kahatriya means a fighter and Khatri means a cultivator.

Rani Lakshmi Kumari, Chudawat who had been elected as member of Indian Parliament some years ago has written a long history of Rajasthan covering nearly 800 Pages. In a story of the 10th century A.D. she writes: Deva Narayan Gujjar collected the members of his scattered family in an Assembly Hall. One of his cousions sat on floor carpet, Deva Naryan called him, O brother that is the place of the Rajputs to sit on, come here near the throne. She thinks Gujrja a superior class to Rajputs.

Late Thakur Yashpal Singh, a Rajput and senior M. P. of India Parliament has rightly stated, since ancient times, the rule of western India has been connected with the Gujars. In mediveal period some Gujar families were called Rajputs. The Rajputs and Ahir are the stars, whereas the Gurjar is the moon of the Kshastriya sky. It is beyoned human power to lessen the dignity of the Gurjars. (Perface Gurjar Itihas written by Yatindra Kumar Verma). No doubt the Gurjars, Rajputs and Ahirs are kith and kin.

(c) perspective view of Gurjar History:
In some Puranas a Kshatriya group has been described by the name of Gushavar (master of the enemy). Prakrit form of this word is Gurshar as Ishar = Isar, Sanskrit with Prakrit is a vast language, so the people change the sound of a pesonal name or tribal name according to deeds or misdeeds of the person or the tribe, when the Gurshar repulsed or defeated the invaders in most ancient times, the people changed the word Gurshar with a strong sense into Gurjar (destroyer of the enemy) oftenly S or Sh are changed into J.

As far as the word Gurjar goes in its present form, it is found in Panch Tantra (Oldest book of all available record). It was translated into Pehalvi by Borozoya, the Minister of Khust I, in 4th century A.D. An English author of the book stories told that world over described Panch Tantra was written in 200 B.C. Almasoodi writes that the book was written in the time of first successor of Poras who fought against Alexander (Marul-ul-Zahab Egypt 1948 page 134). Almasoodi takes the book upto 300 B.C. In this old book, there is a mention of Gurjar Desa. Date of Gurjar Desa prior to Panch Tantra and date of Gurjar tribe Prior to Gujar Desa lead us many centuries before Christ.

Gurjar Desa was a desert where camels were in abundance, so it consisted of west Punjab (now in Pakistan) and west Rajasthan. West Punjab was also a desert before the canal system was intoduced.

There is a stone inscription of 150 A.D. of Rudra Dama on a rock in Girnar Hills in Sorashtra. It reads that Rudra Dama defeated Yaudheyas who has adopted the title of Vir among the Kshatriyas. In all the lists of 36 royal families Gurjar with Vir title is mentioned. Sau Vir. Thus it is evident that about this time i.e. 1st century A.D. Vir title had been a custom among the rulers of Gurjar Desa (See Bombay Gazetteer Vol I, part-I page 225).

In 3rd and 4th century A.D. the Chap famiuly had begun to rule at Baroach. Their history has come to light in full in 6th century A.D. Gurjar Kingdom with its capital Bhimal was the second biggest Kingdom in the sub-continent. The Kingdoms of Chalukya in Deccan, parmars of Ujjain and the other Kingdoms of the Gurjars upto 1300 A.D. have come to light with full details. The Gurjar Desa afterwards expended upto Peshawar in the north, Baroach in the south and the Kanauj to the East. The details may be seen in history books. Hera I means to explain that the whole literature which reached to Iran, Arabia, Greece and China from the sub-continent belonged to Gurjar Desa.

(d) Causes of down fall of the Gurjars:
There are many causes of down fall of the Gurjars. One of them is lack of national unity. The Gurjars and the whole Hindu society as well, were so jealous that they were happy to see the fall of each other, even at their own cost, at the hands of the foreigners, some examples are as follows:

I. It is an after thought story invented by foreign Muslim chroniclers that Jaipal was assisted by all Indian princes. As a matter of fact, neither a single prince understood the aspect of the postilence which befell on Jaipal and his son Anand Pal, no prince came forward for assistance of this Shahi dynasty.

There is contemporary evidence of Alberuni in this respect. Dr. E. G. Sachau in the preface of Alberuni’s India States. The Prince of North Western India had been too narrow-minded, too blind in their self conceit, duly to appreciate the danger threatening from Ghazna and too little politic in due time to unite for a common defence and repluse the enemy. Single handed Anand Pal had to fight it out and succumbed, and the others were to follow, each one in his turn (Page 58).

II. Ghaznavite ruled north of Sutlej from Lahore to Kabul for about 150 years, but the Gurjar rulers never thought of liberating that territory from the foreigners. The local people from the region were pouring in the adjoinig Hindu States but nobody paid any attention. The people of Ghor in Afghanistan threw the yoke of the Turks (Ghaznative) dug the graves of Subuktgin’s descendants and by putting on a heap of woods burned to ashes the dead bodies and bones.

In 1178 A.D. Mohammad Ghori by crossing the river Sutlej entered Chauhans Kingdom. The informers informed Ajmer that Ghoris were marching on Anahilwara, The Chauhans were happy to see their adversaries, the Solankis of Anahilwara, in trouble, so they did not check the advance of Ghoris. Ghoris were defeated and crossed again the Chauhans territory without any harm, in 1189 Bhillam Yadva of Devagari (Deccan) attacked Anahilwara which was narrowly saved, so Bhillam was boastifully called cloud to the Gurjar swans.

III In 1192 A.D. Prithvi Raj Chauhan was defeated and slain by Ghoris. When the news reched Kanauj its ruler jai Chand Gahdwa was pleased and ordered for celebrations in the capital (later he himself was slain by the national enmies).Ghoris further marched on Anahilwara and looted the whole country. After their return, Singjian grandson of Bhillam Yadava, the ruler of Devagiri (Deccan) invaded Gujrat but was replused. After the death of Bhim Solank. Vaghelas, a branch of Solanki became the rulers of Gujrat (Kathiawar).

IV Maharana Karna Vaghela ruled Gujrat 1296 to 1304 one of his Ministers was Madho Brhman. The Minister’s brother died leaving a widow Deval Devi and a minor daughter. Karna enamoured by the beauty pf the widow fell in love with her and kept her in his palace. Madho was enraged and avowed. I will not drink water, nor will take food unless and until I take Turks to Gujrat. So he went to Delhi and Khilji forces invaded Gujrat. Karna faced the foreigners with huge army gallantly, but was defeated.

When the news reached Anahilwara the queens and all the ladies of the city sat on pyre but Karna fled with Deval Devi to Baklana. Sultan’s army levelled Anahilwara to the ground forever, even its remains are not to be seen today. The whole country was plundered. With a heavy loot the invading army returned to Delhi. Gujrat became a province of Delhi Sultanate.

The spies informed the whereabouts of Kanran to the Sultan who again despatched an army. The army stealthily surrounded Baklan. Deval Devi with her daughter was caught and taken to the Harem of the Sultan. What happended to Karna is not known. The tragedy did not end. Jag Mal joined Akber’s army against his own brother Rana Partap. The Sikh rulers in the south of Upper Sutlej preferred subordination of the Britishers to the alliance of Sikh Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

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